Men, Masculinity and Changing Rural Economies

This theme will examine how men are being affected by changes in rural economies and societies. It is increasingly being recognised that focussing only on women, however understandable, is insufficient to overturn the norms that entrench gender inequality. In the context of agriculture, for example, divisions of labour and the control of income from cash crops have usually privileged men at the expense of women, but changes in rural economies are having a profound impact on both men’s and women’s lives. Increasing reliance on cash crops, the movement of men for work and efforts to transform conjugal relations are seeing changes in men’s roles in rural communities. Some scholars even argue that such changes have caused a ‘crisis of masculinity,’ which can result in pernicious forms of masculinity. This theme will examine specific changes occurring in the agricultural context and how men and especially their beliefs about how to be a man are being affected. It will also examine gender programming and interventions that focus solely on men or on men in households or families.

Five sessions on this theme were run over the three days.

  1. Masculinities and Agriculture. Chair: Lee Nelson
  2. Social Norms. Chair: Deborah Rubin
  3. Gender and Rural Transformation. Chair: Rhiannon Pyburn
  4. Gender and Technologies. Chair: Frank Place
  5. Theory to Practice: A Social Norms Approach. Chair: Jo Caffery

Masculinities and Agriculture

Chair: Lee Nelson

WEDNESDAY, 3 APRIL 2019: PARALLEL SESSION 1: 11.00AM-12.25PM


Comparing empowerment transitions of men and women in rural Bangladesh

Audrey Pereira

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with Ahmed, Akhter; Malapit, Hazel; Martinez, Elena; Meinzen- Dick, Ruth; Rubin, Dee; Quisumbing, Agnes; Seymour, Greg; and Tauseef, Salauddin

Kabeer (1999) defines empowerment as the process of gaining the ability to make strategic life choices, when these choices were previously denied. Drydyk (2008) proposes that empowerment should be durable: one should gain the ability to make strategic life choices and continue to exert that power and remain empowered over time. We apply our understanding of poverty dynamics to empowerment, and apply the methodology used in the analysis of poverty dynamics (Baulch and Hoddinott 2000) and chronic poverty (see Baulch, ed. 2011) to analyze the drivers of empowerment transitions for men and women in rural Bangladesh. Using data from the Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS) from 2012 and 2015, we examine determinants of empowerment transitions separately for men and women. We use the Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) to measure empowerment transitions and disaggregate this index into its individual components. We control for individual- and household-level covariates, and idiosyncractic and covariate shocks, for the four categories of empowerment change: empowered in both periods; empowered in period 1 and disempowered in period 2; disempowered in period 1 and empowered in period 2; disempowered in both periods. By examining changes in overall empowerment as well as its component indicators, we will be able to discern which factors contribute most to changes in empowerment for men and women. To our knowledge, this will be the first study that uses a panel dataset to compare empowerment transitions and the domains that drive empowerment, between women and men within the same household over time.

Measuring gender empowerment and its implications for food security in northern Vietnam

Christian Genova

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with Umberger, W.; Newman, S.; and Urbano, M.

Gender equality is crucial to achieve household food security. Recent literature suggests that women in Southeast Asia do have access to resources and assets, and some control of income with men, due largely to how family farms are operated. In Vietnam, many resource-poor rural households operate as a family farming system, wherein farm operation is primarily dependent on family manual and animal labour, and thereby shared amongst men and women. Nonetheless, information about gender equality, including divisions of labour and control of resources, among the ethnic minority communities, many of whom are considered among the most vulnerable groups in the country, remains unexplored. This study investigates the gender equality status of women and men from ethnic minority communities in Lao Cai province, northwest Vietnam, and how it affects their household food security using a cross-sectional data set of 510 households. A modified version of the Abbreviated-Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture (A-WEAI) is used to assess the degree to which men and women decision-makers are empowered using five domains: (1) decisions about agricultural production, (2) access to and decision- making power about productive resources, (3) control of use of income, (4) leadership, and (5) time allocation. Household food security is measured using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). Understanding gender empowerment and its association on household food security among the ethnic minority communities in northern Vietnam can help the Government of Vietnam formulate policies that are focussed on the dimensions where the gaps in empowerment exist.

How does poverty influence women’s empowerment? Evidence from Papua New Guinea

Katrina Kosec

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with Mo, Cecilia; Schmidt, Emily; and Song, Jie

How does a person’s perception of how poor they are compared to others influence the extent to which they espouse egalitarian gender attitudes, and support women’s economic advancement and empowerment with respect to intra-household decision-making and participation in civic life? We explore this question by leveraging an experiment conducted with female and male adults in 900 households in Papua New Guinea. We employ an established survey treatment to subtly alter a respondent’s perception of their relative well-being. Specifically, respondents were asked one of two household income questions, such that half of respondents were primed to feel relatively poor and the other half were primed to feel neutrally or positively about their household’s income. A growing literature shows that individuals’ psychological states can be changed by subtle interventions (e.g., a social protection program). Those who feel relatively poor may have negative outlooks and invest less in the future. If individuals who feel relatively poor are also less likely to support women’s advancement and/or empowerment, this an additional cost of poverty and inequality. We find that those who feel relatively poor are significantly more likely to support women attending school and engaging in paid employment, which suggests that relative economic insecurity can actually prompt support for women’s economic advancement. However, this support is not accompanied by greater support for women’s bargaining power within the household or their involvement in civic life. In other words, increased support for women’s economic participation appears to stem mainly from a desire to raise household income.

The role of positive masculinities in improving food security: Examples from men’s involvement in maternal and child health programmes in Rural Central Malawi

Elizabeth Mkandawire

Abstract

and Hendriks, Sheryl

Many studies purport that in low-income countries, women are typically responsible for producing, preparing and purchasing food. Consequently, policies related to food and nutrition overemphasise the role of women, underestimating the potential for cooperation and complementarity between men and women. This focus on women often does not account for socially constructed expectations of women that undermine their decision-making. Using desk reviews, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, our case study of Malawi sought to understand the complementary role of men in maternal and child nutrition. International agreements and Malawi’s policies were reviewed to understand how men’s involvement emerged on the food and nutrition policy agenda. Men and women were interviewed, sharing their experiences of men’s role in maternal and child health. The study found that men’s involvement in maternal and child health has been on the development agenda since as early as 1996. The Ministry of Health and NGOs have implemented policy actions and programmes to involve men in these areas. Consequently, men’s participation in preparing and procuring food has increased in this community. Participants emphasised cooperation between men and women on issues related to food. The positive change in men’s roles offers opportunities for exploring how men and women can work together to improve food security and nutrition. Cross-cutting issues such as gender, food security and nutrition could potentially improve coordination across various sectors, particularly health and agriculture.

Social Norms

Chair: Deborah Rubin

WEDNESDAY, 3 APRIL 2019: PARALLEL SESSION 2: 2.30-3.25PM


How do gender norms influence adoption of and benefits from agricultural innovations in rural agricultural communities? Findings from research about barley and livestock in rural Rajasthan

Dina Najjar

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We conducted a study in three agricultural communities in dry rural Rajasthan, India, with differing economic and gender norms dynamics to gain a more nuanced understanding of how the adoption of and benefits from atypical agricultural innovations, barley and livestock, are affected by gender, class and age. Findings reveal that female seclusion through Purdah and empowerment are not mutually exclusive. Women simultaneously navigated both quite well, as evidenced by the compromise many women found of selling milk from their homes. Despite women being able to make modest gains through changes in gender norms mainly due to external influence and an increase in women’s education, property ownership remains a constraint for women and so does political participation.Even though a higher share of benefits from innovations accrue to wealthier and more powerful groups in rural communities, other less privileged groups (such as women and lower-income groups) also eventually benefitted from barley and livestock innovations. In fact, our research suggests that the relationship between higher and lower income groups in rural communities do not always have to be antagonistic and oppressive. Finally, we found that wheat subsidization policy is a key impediment to the adoption of barley. Barley would enjoy as much success as wheat did if it also received some subsidization and other broad-based support from government. To reduce poverty, governments may be well-advised to support barley farmers the way it has supported wheat farmers since barley appears to have wider uptake among poorer groups.

Community typology framed by normative climate for agricultural innovation, empowerment, and poverty reduction

Lone Bech Badstue

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This paper employs the concepts of gender norms and agency to advance understanding of inclusive agricultural innovation processes and their contributions to empowerment and poverty reduction at the village level. We present a community typology informed by normative influences on how people assess conditions and trends for village women and men to make important decisions (or to exercise agency) and for local households to escape poverty. The typology is comprised of three village types - transforming, climbing and churning - with each type depicting a different normative climate and trajectory of change in agency and poverty levels. Across “transforming” villages with significant increases in people’s agency and poverty reduction, we found a highly inclusive normative climate that is fuelling gender equality and agricultural innovation, as well as infrastructural improvements, expanded markets, and male labour migration. The research, part of the GENNOVATE initiative, includes a qualitative comparative methodology and dataset of 79 village cases from 17 countries.

 

Those who have jobs can travel alone: Norm emergence and opportunities for women’s empowerment in agricultural interventions

Amanda Wendt

Abstract

with Sinharoy, Sheela; Waid, Jillian; and Gabrysch, Sabine

Women’s empowerment is considered an important factor influencing women’s and children’s nutrition, though its conceptualization and operationalization can vary greatly between contexts. The Food and Agricultural Approaches to Reducing Malnutrition (FAARM) trial is part of the Gender, Agriculture, and Assets Project 2 (GAAP2), which aims to adapt and validate a women’s empowerment measure. Objective: Our objectives were to examine local definitions and perceptions of women’s empowerment in the FAARM population and explore opportunities to increase women’s decision-making and freedom of movement. Method: We conducted 4 focus group discussions (2 with women; 2 with men) and 9 life history interviews (5 women; 4 men) in two villages in Sylhet Division, Bangladesh. Focus group discussions and interviews were conducted in Bengali, transcribed, translated, and coded using thematic analysis.Results: Women and men expressed adherence to traditional gender norms regarding women’s agricultural production, decision-making, and freedom of movement. Most perceived women’s changing position negatively, preferring practices to remain the same. One exception was employment, which brought more financial security to the family, increasing household food security and/or children’s educational opportunities. These results suggest the emergence of new norms around women’s freedom of movement. Conclusion: Many respondents expressed preferences for traditional gender norms but prioritize their children’s education and opportunities to increase financial security. These were acceptable reasons for women to increase mobility and decision-making. Engaging communities from the perspective of increased financial and educational gain may hold promise as a strategy to improve women’s freedom of movement and decision-making through agricultural interventions.


Gender and Rural Transformation

Chair: Rhiannon Pyburn

WEDNESDAY, 3 APRIL 2019: PARALLEL SESSION 3: 4.00-4.55PM


Learning from cross- country differences of female work participation in agriculture in the Eastern Gangetic Plain: The micro and macro connections

Sucharita Sen

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with Sreenita, Mondal; Soumi, Chatterjee; Daniel, Raj Abraham; and Suchita, Jain

This paper provides time series evidence from large-scale government data-sets on female work and gendered unemployment in the Eastern Gangetic Plain (EGP) which encompasses three South Asian countries viz. India, Nepal and Bangladesh. A review of existing literature highlights a withdrawal of women from agriculture and labour-force and hence a consistent de-feminization in India. In contrast, Nepal and Bangladesh have experienced consistent feminization primarily as a response to male- selective outmigration. The Indian part of Indo-Gangetic plains displays even lower work participation rates which has shown indications of increase in only the last few years. The paper critically revisits the role of women in agriculture in EGP, a region with fertile land, having high dependence on agriculture, limited crop diversification and high incidence of rural poverty. It analyses the secondary large scale data, backing it up with exploratory field-level information to understand processes of both feminization and defeminisation in agriculture in the three countries. Apart from inconsistencies that exist between the available literature based on secondary and primary data with respect to women’s participation in agriculture, there is very little existing knowledge on this issue about the regional context of EGP, and this paper aims to fill this gap. In particular, the central research question that the paper seeks to answer is what explains the plural trends and levels of female work participation rates within the EGP, in Nepal, India and Bangladesh?

Feminization of agriculture through gender dynamics across scales

Alessandra Galie

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with Pfeifer, Catherine; and Oloo, Stephen

Feminization of agriculture is a phenomenon observed in many countries, particularly in the developing world, where women's participation in the agricultural sector increases relative to men (who are increasingly involved in non-agricultural activities). Feminization of agriculture is rooted in gender dynamics at intra-household level where gendered social structures influence individuals’ opportunities (e.g. availability of on or off farm work), choices (e.g. accepting an off-farm job while hiring labour to look after the children) and ability to act (e.g. having the freedom or mindset to take up available opportunities and acts on choices made). However, gender dynamics are pre- dominantly studied at intra-household and sometimes at community level; little is understood about how intra- household gender dynamics influence phenomena at the higher scales (e.g. landscape, national, regional or global) such as feminization of agriculture. Studying what gender dynamics affect the feminization of agriculture and how, can also help appreciate what causes the phenomenon and how it may change the agricultural landscape in the future. The project behind this paper aims to develop a methodology to examine how intra-household gender-dynamics scale to community, landscape, regional and national levels — and influence the feminization of agriculture observed in the East Africa region with a focus on livestock as an example. The study engages with an interdisciplinary mixed-method approach in developing a conceptual framework on the main determinants of the phenomenon and their correlation across scales.

Farms not arms: The role of women farmers in conflict-vulnerable communities in the Philippines

Anne Shangrila Fuentes

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and Johnson, Mary

This paper features the narratives of Filipina women (farmers and leaders) who are transforming their rural communities through strengthened social networks, increased levels of trust and resourceful livelihood initiatives. For over four decades, the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao has experienced a multi-faceted conflict situation that involves numerous separatist groups, as well as clans, criminal gangs and political elites. The protracted conflict is complex and has resulted in high rates of poverty and displacement
Within this setting a project entitled “Improving the methods and impacts of agricultural extension in conflict areas of Mindanao, Philippines” commenced in late 2013, with an aim to develop and subsequently apply an improved model for agricultural extension in conflict areas of Mindanao. The extension model, known as LIFE (Livelihood Improvement through Facilitated Extension), is based on three broad strategies: (1) improve access to technical innovations, (2) build community social capital, and (3) collaborate closely with local institutional partners. Initial project surveys show that during times of conflict small holder farmers were prevented from moving freely, cut off from their markets, and isolated from networking opportunities with other farmers, government and non-government support services and information providers. However, later studies reveal that conflict-related and economic constraints resulted in a gender role transformation. Women assume community and group organisation, income generation, decision making and leadership roles that are traditionally performed by men. Women develop their self-confidence, fakgis (striving for their dreams) and have more agnafat (hope) for the future.

Gender and Technologies

Chair: Frank Place

THURSDAY, 4 APRIL 2019: PARALLEL SESSION 4: 11.00AM-12.25PM


Understanding the adoption of multiple packages of system of rice intensification in India and its gender implications

Poornima Varma

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This paper explores adoption decisions of multiple System of Rice Intensification (SRI) practices by rice farmers of India using household-level data and its gender implications. The SRI is a systemic approach that involves several management practices to increase yields without harming environment. Since partial adoption is very common, we develop a multivariate probit model (MVP) and ordered probit model to jointly analyse the adoption of multiple practices and the number of SRI practices adopted while recognising the interrelationship among them. Our approach extends the existing empirical studies by allowing for correlations across different practices. The empirical results show that both the probability and the extent of adoption are influenced by various economic, institutional and infrastructure related factors such as farm assets, membership in farmer organisations, extension services, irrigation facility etc. Government’s objective of increased rice production by promoting SRI under the national food security mission did not show positive impact. The adoption of some of the practices of SRI, for example use of mechanical weeder for weeding, seemed to replace female labourers with male labourers. This shows the gender bias in the technology adoption.

Gender, intrahousehold seed system management, and technical efficiency

Jourdain Lokossou

Abstract

with Kapran, Issoufou; Yila, Jummai; and Affognon, Hippolyte

During the last decades, gender- sensitive projects were designed and implemented with the goal of reducing gender gap and improving smallholder farmers’ livelihood. An extensive literature has provided gender-differentiated evidence of technology adoption, inputs use, and productivity in agriculture. However, little is known about the intra- household gender responsibility in variety choice and seed source and how they affect technical efficiency. This paper contributes to filling this by using 3436 plot-level data collected in 2018 and distributed as follow: sorghum plots (37%), millet plots (24%) and groundnut plots (39%). Stochastic production frontier model is used to estimate the technical efficiency based on plots indicated as male-managed, female-managed in male- headed households, female-managed in female-headed households and jointly managed. Except for female- managed plots in female-headed households, variety choice and seed source decisions are exclusively made by the head of household (male) for the production of sorghum and millet which are staple foods in the study zone. For groundnut production, variety choice and seed source decisions are made by the plot manager and is mainly based on the primary production objective (consumption or sale). Regardless of the crop, the variety used is mainly local (81%), farmers saved seed (77%), and variety choice and seed source are strongly correlated with the technical efficiency. In addition, groundnut female-managed production in female-headed households is more efficient than their counterpart in male-headed households. Findings suggest that gender responsibility in variety choice and seed source depend on the type of the crop. Moreover, variety choice and seed source affect differently technical efficiency of female plots.

Role of innovation networks to support the livestock extension systems of Pakistan

Hassan Warriach

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and McGill, David

The objective of the study is to demonstrate the role of learning and innovation networks, with a focus on the importance of gender, in integrating improved technology-transfer within the livestock extension system of Pakistan. A model of technology transfer was developed in Pakistan called the ‘whole family extension approach’. This model includes comprehensive training on the whole dairy farming system delivered in regular (every 4 to 6 weeks) farmer discussion groups offered to both the men and women of the farming household. The extension model is primarily a knowledge transfer-based system, but also relies on farmer engagement and feedback to help drive research and topics for discussion. No financial incentives were provided to the farmers for their participation. Previous research shows that technical transfer of farm-level recommendations leads to successful adoption, ranging from 40% up to 95% depending on the resource input and complexity of the technology. These results show that engaging the whole family lead to impact on farmers both directly and indirectly engaged with the extension program. The research program’s future goal is to expand the success of this model and integrate components of the whole-family extension approach within other organisations engaged in the Pakistan livestock extension system. A common challenge field teams face is Pakistan is effectively reaching women in communities and this is fundamental to the whole family extension model. Our research team is working with two innovation networks; (1) the community of extension officers and (2) the network of organisation management to try to understand their challenges better and devise strategies to support sustained technology transfer to farming families, including women. Initial results indicate that those organisations who have both male and female extension officers working together in the field are observing greater impact and on-farm benefits to smallholder dairy farmers and their families.

 

What influences smallholder adoption of proven agricultural technologies?

Silva Larson

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with Perez, P.; Giger-Dray, A.; Moglia, M.; Thammavong, P.; Thephavanh, M.; Sodahak, V.; Khounsy, B.; Josh, P.; Boyd, D.; and Alexander, K.

This is an important question for international agricultural research projects. Several research activities informed our understanding of the opportunities, barriers and constraints faced by smallholder farmers in southern Laos. Subsequently, Collective Behaviour Elicitation (CBE) interactive workshops were conducted with smallholder farmers. These gaming sessions aimed to elicit specific behaviours that prevent or facilitate adoption of introduced agricultural technologies. The game was developed from project data and from consultation with various experts. This was necessary to make scenarios presented to farmers as realistic as possible. As games were played through successive seasons the production ‘pinch points’ where farmers make ‘go/no-go’ decisions regarding uptake of technologies were identified. As such, CBE activities uncovered tacit and explicit beliefs, decisions and actions indicating the bottlenecks and barriers to technology diffusion. CBE gaming activities were conducted with 79 participants representing farmers, traders and extension workers and were played in men’s and women’s groups. Findings indicated that the average productivity outcomes for women’s teams were higher than for men’s teams (i.e. women had more successful outcomes). Further findings from a gender perspective will be discussed during presentation, in the context of not only the implications of differing decision making behaviours on agricultural futures and productivity in Lao PDR; but rather as the wider implications for developing future market systems and the issue of labour availability in countries where rural regions are undergoing rapid transformational change from subsistence production toward engaging in the market economy.

 

Where will the next generation of farmers go: Exploring gendered and intergenerational experiences of agrarian transformations in Ghana

Sofie Mortensen

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Customary land tenure systems are rapidly changing in Ghana’s Brong- Ahafo region due to processes of commodification, including domestic and foreign land grabs. The growing emergence of a land market within the customary system has resulted in increasing land values and scarcity, leading to new forms of social differentiation. Based on interviews and focus group discussions with young women and men farmers in the Atebubu-area, the paper finds that young farmers are challenged in securely accessing land and unsatisfied with their situation either due to complete lack of land or because of the size and/or location. This is often disproportionately experienced by young women that due to socially ascribed gender roles are in charge of domestic duties. This both limits their income opportunities and creates time restrictions, preventing them from accessing cheaper land further away. Further, common perceptions viewing men as primary farmers limit women’s access to support and knowledge. The processes of commodification, however, are creating a new group of young, landless farmers or young farmers that struggle to move largely beyond subsistence farming. Yet, many of the interviewed farmers see their future to be within farming, some as a primary choice, others as a last resort. Despite these challenges, generational and gendered dynamics of agrarian changes are often overlooked in research, commonly assuming that the youth have lost interest in farming. This paper critically assesses ths assumption, arguing that the youth rather than leaving farming behind, are pushed out with potentially large impacts on food security, wellbeing and equality.

Theory to Practice: A Social Norms Approach

Chair: Jo Caffery

THURSDAY, 4 APRIL 2019: PARALLEL SESSION 5: 1.30-2.55PM


PANEL 4: Theory to Practice: A Social Norms Approach

  • Inga Mepham
  • Neil Nuia
  • Hannah Cunneen
  • Cecilia Fonseca

Mepham, Inga and Fonseca, Cecilia

Helping women’s groups and networks to better understand and influence market systems and agriculture sector governance.

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The agriculture sector in Timor-Leste is dominated by male decision makers, with few pathways for women to raise their issues. With that in mind, the TOMAK program, set out to find what gender transformative approaches and opportunities combined, might accelerate women’s visibility, representation, and leadership in the sector. This presentation, highlights the experiences, success and learnings coming out of the last 2 years in addressing this issue. Starting with an initial gender equality and social inclusion assessment (GESIA), that guided approaches to influencing decision making at different levels. A core approach was to ensure that women’s groups and machinery understood the market systems and the agriculture sector more broadly. This provided them with the technical knowledge and confidence to engage with these sectors, in ways they had not in the past. By fostered a mature and constructive approach to partnership with the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (MAF) and other development partners, the national women’s machinery has found new and unexpected entry points for advocating for women’s priorities, while pursuing the gender gaps in the sector. As the collaboration has matured, the realm of their influence has expanded to other Ministries, Municipal Authorities and the parliament. Quick wins have come through linking the results of MAF gender gaps assessments to the MAF annual plan and budget and then following it through into the parliamentary budget hearings. The presentation will highlight examples addressing; agriculture governance, extension services, access to productive land use and improvements in local marketplace management and safety.

Nuia, Neil

Importance of cutting-edge gender social norms analysis in the design phase of programs.

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This presentation will discuss the importance of gender norms analysis in the design or inception phase of an economic development program and specifically describe the experience of Oxfam and Strongim Bisnis in Solomon Islands. Strongim Bisnis is a Market System Development program with WEE as a main crosscutting area. During the first year of implementation, the program partnered with Oxfam to conduct a gender norms analysis, in addition to the standard gendered value chain analysis, in order to identify the main informal norms that are barriers or enablers for women in economic and business activities. While identifying pathways available to shift restrictive social norms. In-depth community analysis finds that most men do not engage in unpaid care labour, although there are a minority that undertake some care and domestic tasks. According to the report, economic opportunities are also either enabled or hindered by a range of cultural practices including patriarchy, black magic, bride price, the “kastom” value of respect, the “wantok” system, reef conservation, weaving and the barter system. Household financial decision-making is complex and situational, with both positive and harmful practices taking place within the one household depending on the decision and income source. Men have significant control over productive resources including land, equipment, tools and cash crops, with women seeing this as blocking their opportunity to utilise these assets for business purposes.The main findings and recommendations from this study influenced the design of Strongim Bisnis’ and Oxfam’s activities and specific elements will be discussed in the panel.

Cunneen, Hannah 

Hidden Roles but Visible Value: Women in Liberia’s Rubber Sector.

As part of a group of presentations looking at the underlying theory and the practice of social norms and approaches to exposing, defining and addressing agricultural gender gaps, GROW Liberia has zeroed-in on the rubber industry in Liberia from a gendered social norms perspective to uncover women’s hidden roles in the rubber value chain. Undertaking a gender-related review in the middle of implementation, the program required quick and operational insights to ensure its interventions in the rubber industry delivered impact for women. A fit for purpose research design was applied and found men in highly visible roles as farm owners and tappers Men also dominating the financial decision-making roles, including; supervisory positions and assigned vendor roles. This does not mean, however, that women are absent from the sector. GROW’s research looked under the surface and uncovered the numerous and essential roles women play across the value chain, and successfully challenged the long-held assumption that Liberia’s rubber sector is male dominated. The social norms analysis was essential in understanding drivers of the gendered division of labour within the rubber value chain, both in terms of obstacles for female participation, as well as enabling the program to better understand entry points for women to take on higher value roles and increase their incomes.

PANEL 6: Improving the agricultural value chain

  • Adhitya Marendra Kiloes
  • Maligisa James Dotto
  • Janelle Larson

Kiloes, Adhitya Marendra

Brand Development in Women Farmers Group Empowerment to Support the Tropical Fruit Tree Community Based Biodiversity Management Activity: A Study from Garcinia sp Conservation in Sijunjung, West Sumatera, Indonesia.

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Community-based Biodiversity Management concept to conserve the local native tropical fruit tree from extinction by getting the benefits from it through some of local community activities has been conducted in Sijunjung, West Sumatera Indonesia in conserving relatives of Garcinia sp. Some of Garcinia species and variety which previously only a wild tree in the forest and has not been utilized, now has become a commercially traded product. One of the products is the tea from Garcinia sp leaves with the brand “Garci-tea” which become the featured product from the woman farmers group in Sijunjung. This brand was generated to help woman farmers group in marketing their product. With this easy-to-recognize brand, becomes a trigger for women farmers group to expand their marketing and access to capital and assistance network, that also supporting the main purpose to conserve local native fruit tree. The objectives of this paper are to explain about the history of Garci-tea and to give an idea how a brand can empower women farmers group in improving livelihoods and also to conserve the local native tropical fruits.

Dotto, Maligisa

Rural transformation opportunities: Challenges and Solutions to women participation in agricultural production in Tanzania.

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About 80% of Tanzania’s population lives in rural area, out of which approximately a half are women. The rural community largely depends on rain-fed traditional agriculture, dominated by subsistence farming. Due to low agricultural productivity and missed opportunities, the rural community is still living in poverty.The first part of this presentation explores rural transformation opportunities in relation to Tanzanian context as a developing country in which most of the means of production are culturally owned by men. The under-utilised or totally missed rural opportunities such as horticulture, aquaculture, apiculture, poultry, etc. have been discussed. Secondly, the presentation has pointed out the challenges (such as not being involved in decision making, lack of property right ownership, lack of access to financial services, lack of access to knowledge and technology) that hinder women to effectively engage in agricultural production. Finally, recommended solutions have been given on how those challenges could be overcome so as to enhance women participation in agricultural activities, and thus accelerate rural economic transformation. The presentation further explains the roles and responsibilities of different development stakeholders - the government, financial institutions, non-governmental organisations, and the community in enhancing women participation in agricultural production. ‘‘Together we can achieve gender equity, improve agricultural productivity and enhance rural transformation’’

Larson, Janelle

Gender-transformative farmer field schools.

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Western Honduras is characterized by high rates of poverty, food insecurity and women’s disempowerment. Funded by USAID’s Feed the Future Initiative as part of the UC Davis Horticulture Innovation Lab, researchers from Penn State and Zamorano Panamerican Agricultural School (Honduras), surveyed 953 individuals in 562 households to identify association between aspects of women’s empowerment and food security and dietary diversity. While 42% of households have gardens, only 30.4% of women and 21.0% of men achieved adequate dietary diversity as measured by the MDD-W. Furthermore, while severe food insecurity is not common, 6.8% of women (and 11.1% of women in single headed households), experienced severe food insecurity, compared to 4.6% of men. We found those who live in households where women have access to credit or control over income have a somewhat more diverse diet, and those with women’s access to credit are also less likely to experience moderate to severe food insecurity. Based on these findings, we developed and delivered a gender-transformative Farmer Field School (FFS) in western Honduras in 2018 pairing technical training with gender focused content. We partnered with a local nongovernment organization to conduct a 16-week program for Lenca women and their families. We used the FFS model to address gender inequities, intrahousehold dynamics, and women’s empowerment in western Honduras. Through qualitative pre- and post-evaluations, we investigated the gendered participation in the FFS, its impact on household decision making and agriculture production, as well as the potential to empower both men and women.