Pakistan is heavily reliant on agriculture, with the important crops (wheat, rice, sugarcane, maize and cotton) accounting for 4% of GDP and over 20% in value addition (Ministry of Finance). Yield per hectare has shown only marginal improvement in recent years. Overall yield is highly dependent on fluctuating water availability. Several of the minor crops are underproduced, including pulse crops, causing reliance on imports.
Pakistan has two cropping seasons, "Kharif" being the first sowing season starting from April-June and is harvested during October-December. Rice, sugarcane, cotton, maize, mung bean, mash (black gram), bajra (pearl millet) and jowar (sorghum) are “Kharif" crops. "Rabi", the second sowing season, begins in October-December and is harvested in April-May. Wheat, gram (chickpea), lentil (masoor), tobacco, rapeseed, barley and mustard are "Rabi" crops.